Panic attacks are intense and overwhelming episodes of fear and anxiety that can strike unexpectedly, leaving anyone feeling vulnerable and confused. Understanding the underlying reasons behind panic attacks is a crucial step towards effectively managing and overcoming them. While the specific triggers vary from person to person, a combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors contributes to their occurrence.

Biological Factors


Genetic predisposition can play a role in the development of panic attacks. If a close family member has experienced panic disorder, there’s a higher likelihood of anyone within the family experiencing panic attacks.

Neurochemical Imbalance 

Our brains are the command center for our whole bodies. As such, brain chemistry imbalances, particularly involving neurotransmitters like serotonin and norepinephrine, can influence mood regulation and anxiety. Undiagnosed fluctuations in these chemicals can trigger panic attacks.

Fight-or-Flight Response

Our bodies’ natural fight-or-flight response is activated during moments of danger. In the case of panic attacks, this response can be triggered inappropriately, leading to physical symptoms like rapid heart rate, shortness of breath, and sweating.

Psychological Factors

Anxiety Sensitivity

Some people are more sensitive to bodily sensations, interpreting them as potential signs of danger. This heightened awareness can contribute to a feedback loop, intensifying feelings of anxiety and leading to panic attacks.

Stress and Trauma

High levels of chronic stress or exposure to traumatic events can make anyone more susceptible to panic attacks. Trauma-related triggers can naturally cause the body to respond with panic as a defense mechanism.

Environmental Factors

Major Life Changes

Significant life changes, such as moving to a new place, starting a new job, or going through a breakup, can induce stress or anxiety, and trigger panic attacks, especially if the person involved lacks effective coping mechanisms.

Substance Use

Stimulants like caffeine and recreational drugs can increase anxiety levels and contribute to panic attacks. Withdrawal from certain substances can also trigger panic symptoms, which is why an adequate diet and healthy lifestyle are key to coping with them.

Social Environment

An environment characterized by high levels of stress, constant pressure, or lack of social support can contribute to the development of anxiety disorders, including panic attacks. Surrounding yourself with kindness and a strong support network will go a long way in preventing the occurrence of panic attacks.

Coping with a panic attack

As you can see, many different variables can play a role in the occurrence of a panic attack. If you or anyone close to you has one, the first thing to keep in mind is that, in most cases, these are a completely natural response of your body to a difficult situation. There’s nothing wrong with having a panic attack, as there are always some techniques and methods that you can enforce to prevent them from occurring again. Since panic attack symptoms like shortness of breath, chest tightness, difficulty breathing, and nausea can also feel like symptoms of having a heart attack, it is important to see a cardiologist to rule out any signs of heart abnormalities.

Professional help

Seeking professional advice will help you discern the underlying reasons that provoked the panic attack, whilst helping you develop the coping mechanism to manage and prevent any future episodes. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), in particular, can help you recognize and challenge negative thought patterns, allowing you to develop healthier ways of thinking and responding to anxiety-provoking situations.


Prescribed by a professional and as a complement to other mechanisms, antidepressants and anti-anxiety medications, can help regulate brain chemistry, reducing the frequency and severity of panic attacks.

Relaxation Techniques

Practicing mindfulness, deep breathing, and progressive muscle relaxation can help manage the physical symptoms of panic attacks and create a sense of control. Finding a calming hobby and practicing it with regularity can help you create a safe space for relaxation and introspection.

Lifestyle Changes

It’s very important to consider how healthy are your lifestyle choices, and whether they’re conducive to a healthful mindset. Engaging in regular exercise, maintaining a balanced diet, getting adequate sleep, and avoiding substances that exacerbate anxiety can contribute to overall mental well-being.

Panic attacks are complex phenomena resulting from a combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors. While understanding the causes can provide insights, it’s important to approach panic attacks with compassion and seek professional help when needed. Through therapy, lifestyle adjustments, and coping strategies, you (or your loved ones) can learn to manage and overcome panic attacks, ultimately leading to a more empowered and fulfilling life.